Crypto modeling with Zenroom and Lua

The Zenroom VM uses the Lua direct-syntax parser to securely interpret and execute operations including complex arithmetics on Elliptic Curve primitives ECP module as well Pairing operations on twisted curves (ECP2).

The resulting scripting language is a restricted Lua dialect without any external extension, customised to resemble as much as possible the scripting language used by cryptographers in software, as for instance Mathematica.

With Zenroom we want to lower the friction that cryptographers face when implementing new crypto models. One can see this software as a sort of templating system bridging the work of cryptographers and programmers.

The Zencode Whitepaper explains in depth the issues at stake.

The intended audience of this documentation chapter are cryptographers.

Short path from math to production

Examples speak more than a thousand words. We will dive into two implementations to make it evident how easy is to go from an academic paper to a portable implementation running efficiently on any platform.

ElGamal

As a basic introduction we propose the implementation of ElGamal encryption system widely used in homomorphic encryption. The code below makes use of the ECP arithmetics provided by Zenroom.

ECP = require('ECP')

function ElGamal.keygen()
   local d = INT.modrand(ECP.order())
   local gamma = d * ECP.generator()
   return d, gamma
end

function ElGamal.encrypt(gamma, m, h)
   local k = INT.modrand(ECP.order())
   local a = k * ECP.generator()
   local b =
    gamma * k
    +
    h * m
   return a, b, k
end

function ElGamal.decrypt(d, a, b)
   return b - a * d
end

One can play around with this code already by using our online demo.

ECQV

For a practical example we will now use the Zenroom implementation of the Elliptic Curve Qu-Vanstone (ECQV) scheme also known as "Implicit Certificate" and widely used by Blackberry technologies.

Mathematical Formula

ECQV mathematical formula

Zenroom Implementation

ECP = require('ECP')
G = ECP.generator()
function rand() -- random modulo
    return BIG.modrand(ECP.order())
end
-- make a request for certification
ku = BIG.modrand(ECP.order())
Ru = G * ku
-- keypair for CA
dCA = BIG.modrand(ECP.order()) -- private
QCA = G * dCA       -- public (known to Alice)
-- from here the CA has received the request
k = BIG.modrand(ECP.order())
kG = G * k
-- public key reconstruction data
Pu = Ru + kG
declaration =
    { public = Pu:octet(),
      requester = str("Alice"),
      statement = str("I am stuck in Wonderland.") }
declhash = sha256(OCTET.serialize(declaration))
hash = BIG.new(declhash, ECP.order())
-- private key reconstruction data
r = (hash * k + dCA) % ECP.order()
-- verified by the requester, receiving r,Certu
du = (r + hash * ku) % ECP.order()
Qu = Pu * hash + QCA
assert(Qu == G * du)

Elliptic Curve Point arithmetics

The brief demonstration above shows how easy it can be to implement a cryptographic scheme in Zenroom's Lua dialect, which gives immediately the advantage of a frictionless deployment on all targets covered by our VM.

Arithmetic operations also involving Elliptic Curve Points (ECP) are applied using simple operators on BIG integers.

All this is possible without worrying about library dependencies, OS versioning, interpreter's availability etc.

Basic advantages

Putting the mathematical formula and the code side by side while using the same variable names greatly helps to review the correctness of the implementation.

The tooling inherited from Zenroom allows to swiftly build test coverage and benchmarks.

Future Zenroom developments will improve the provability of the calculations and their results, as well provide testing techniques as fuzzing: this will automatically benefit all implementations.

Cryptographers can work independently from programmers, by modeling their formulas using their best known tools and then provide the script as a payload to be uploaded inside the VM.

System integrators can work on embedding Zenroom as a VM without worrying about cryptographic libraries APIs and moving dependencies required by the cryptographic implementations.

All in all, by using Zenroom your cryptographic model implementation is ready for an accellerating future where crypto technologies will grow in diversity and possibilities!